Conspiracies Against Electric Streetcars and Motors

It takes a special kind of person to believe or promote a conspiracy theory. Often, these theorists lack hard evidence, jump to conclusions, or are simply delusional. While it's a fool's errand to investigate how the Illuminati were behind the assassination of JFK, there are some conspiracies that are only theory in name-especially in the automotive industry. Throughout its history, big auto has used various corporate tactics and product suppressions to stay on top of the competition.

The General Motors Streetcar Conspiracy
When automobiles were just coming into fashion and today's industry leaders were gaining momentum, most cities relied on electric streetcar systems for public transportation. These trams had dominated metropolitan transport since the late nineteenth century, and their abundance in heavily populated centers posed a problem for the fledgling automotive industry. Simply put, if everyone had the ability to take a trolley to work or the supermarket, there would be no demand for individual cars or buses.

Most trolleys were owned and operated by National City Lines and its subsidiaries, Pacific City Lines and American City Lines. These companies were all heavily invested in by GM, Standard Oil, Philips Petroleum, and other businesses with a heavy stake in the success of the automotive industry. By 1946, the conglomerate had acquired, owned, and controlled 46 transit systems in 45 cities and 16 states. Slowly, the trolley systems began to be phased out in favor of buses.
It did not take long for the federal government to connect the disappearance to the NCL's generous investors. Nine auto companies and seven individuals were charged and convicted with creating a transportation monopoly, but the damage was done. When it came to transportation, vehicles reigned supreme.

Big Auto Killed the Electric Car
While auto companies easily banded together to conquer common enemies, they also conspired against each other to gain a market advantage. For example, vehicle manufacturers are closely connected to the health and wealth of the oil industry. It is thus beneficial for both to manufacture motors powered by gasoline instead of alternative sources such as electricity or biomass. In particular, big auto is more or less staunchly opposed to cars powered by electric motors.
Energy conserving vehicles could be the key to reducing green house emissions, but they still are a novel sight worldwide. In the 2006 film "Who Killed the Electric Car?" filmmakers question whether the electric car's failure to fully take root on roadways is due to an industry-wide conspiracy. The documentary describes a history of sabotage at the hands of the automotive industry, and even cites the GM Streetcar Conspiracy as the forebear of this modern dilemma. While many auto companies release a battery-powered vehicle or hybrid every few years to appease critics, they are often taken off the production line after the novelty wears off. While it is currently unproven whether a large, organized conspiracy against electric autos is taking place, it is clear that companies aren't eager to push for the new technology either.
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Used Car Dealers Help You Shrink Your Carbon Footprint

It's finally happened: being "green" has actually become the trendy and cool thing to do! While this is great news for the environment, it also means we all need to get clear on how to actually do it. As it turns out, there is no small amount of confusion when it comes to things like what kind of vehicle is the most environmentally friendly option. Maybe you've even asked yourself this question: is it better to stop in to see your local used car dealers or to buy some fancy new "green" machine?

Manufacturing Versus Recycling
Most people nowadays have become accustomed to recycling things like glass, paper, and plastic. It makes sense, after all, to re-use such things rather than send them to landfill while still creating yet more of the same waste products all over again. Well, the same is true for vehicles. Think of everything that goes into fabricating a new auto and of all the materials required - the metal, plastic, electrical circuitry, and more - and the difficulty of disposing of all of that in a responsible fashion. Clearly, it makes sense to try to maintain a roadworthy vehicle for as long as possible. Studies have actually shown that between 12 and 28 percent of all carbon dioxide emissions generated over the entire "life" of a typical vehicle are emitted during manufacturing, before it even takes to the streets! But when it comes to manufacturing hybrids, that process has an even higher environmental impact - about twice as much as manufacturing a regular vehicle. Buying a used car is the clear winner of this round.
Electricity Versus Gasoline
This one seems obvious at first glance. Surely the fact that a new, high-tech hybrid runs on an electrical charge means that it is cleaner and greener, right? Well, no actually. If you look a little closer, you'll find that the reality doesn't live up to the hype. Today, the majority of the world's electrical energy still comes from steam turbine generators that run on fossil fuels, so most of the electricity required to charge the electric car batteries stems from the same fossil-fuel-consuming power plants as everything else. Until the energy itself is produced in a green way, running an electric vehicle still creates carbon emissions. When you factor in the heavy environmental impact of manufacture, as explained above, and the mining of lithium for the vehicle batteries, it seems that visiting used car dealers for a vehicle that gets good gas mileage is again the better option.
Time Versus Money
Everyone knows the familiar saying - time is money! Well, one sometimes overlooked aspect of "being green" is that of simple efficiency, so let's not forget to also examine whether our shiny new devices are making us more or less effective. Could we be wasting time, and therefore money, by making and using things that are supposed to conserve energy? For example, consider an electric auto with a range of about 75 miles per charge, and then consider the time spent on longer trips. Obviously, drivers will need to incorporate recharging time into their overall trip time, expressed as miles per hour. Incredibly, one test showed that the rate of travel over a long road trip in an electric car was at a leisurely six miles per hour! That's only slightly faster than a donkey. The used car once again comes out on top in our final round, making that a clean sweep.
So now that you know, go check out the models available at your local used car dealers and spread the word - the greenest machines are the ones previously owned by someone else!
When it comes to used car dealers in Mobile, AL, drivers can learn more by visiting
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Lambda Control Map

Lambda control map.
Th ebest possible adjustment of the air-fuel-ratio to every operating condition is achieved with a Lambda control map in the control unit.

Lambda control map is stored in the digital circuit section of the control unit.  such a map is first determined by engine-dynamometer tests., then optimized for fuel economy, exhaust emissions and driveability in the vehicle itself. With a Lambda map, it is possible to adjust the air-fuel ratio according to the following demands for every operating condition:

  • minimal fuel consumption
  • good driveability
  • low exhaust emissions
  • power. 
 it should be noted that determining a particular operating point has no influence on determining other points.  A wide-open throttle, of one ecu controls the air-fuel ratio over the entire engine-speed range to the lambda= 0.85~0.95, with avoidance of knocking as a criterion. At part load, one ecu adjusts the air-fuel ratio to provide low fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. for idling, smoothness is the top priority.  System deviations in the air-flow sensor sensor can be compensated at the points in the map where they occur, without influencing other operating points.

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